Risk of Mortality in Elderly Coronavirus Disease 2019 Patients With Mental Health Disorders: A Nationwide Retrospective Study in South Korea


A total of 814 participants were included in the study: 255 patients with and 559 patients without mental disorders, respectively. The demographic and clinical characteristics of the patients are shown in Table 1. The mental disorder group more likely included older females with diabetes, hypertension, chronic obstructive lung disease, urinary tract infections, and osteoarthritis (Table 1). There was no significant difference between the two groups in their history of neoplasms, but the mental disorder group was more likely to have a history of antithrombotic agent use and medication for acidity related disorders (Table 1). The mental disorder group used antidepressants (31.0%), anxiolytics (31.8%), and antipsychotics (15.7%) significantly more than the non-mental disorder group. Almost half of the patients in the mental disorder group had dementia (51.8%), organic mental disorder (54.5%), depression (45.9%), or anxiety disorder (41.2%). In addition, the mental disorder group was more likely to have symptoms of fever, nausea, and vomiting (Table 1). In risk scores, Charlson comorbidity index, CHA₂DS₂-VASc score, and Diabetes Complications Severity Index were significantly higher in the mental disorder group than in the nonmental disorder group (7.4 versus 5.2, t = 7.78, df = 466.78, p t = 8.39, df = 499.76, p t = 6.96, df = 476.65, p Table 1). After propensity score stratification for age and sex, our study lost 33 patients (19 with mental disorder and 14 with nonmental disorder) and finally included 781 patients in each group (236 [30.2%] with mental disorder and 545 [69.8%] with nonmental disorder). Table 2 presents the baseline characteristics for the stratification of propensity scores for the two groups, with prestratification differences in age and sex, but no statistically significant differences after stratification.

TABLE 1Baseline Characteristics of Both Groups

Notes: Bold type indicates statistical significance. CCI: Charlson comorbidity index; DCSI: Diabetes Complication Severity Index.

Table 2Comparison of Baseline Demographics Before and After Propensity Score Stratification in Both Groups

Bold type indicates statistical significance.

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