The COVID-19 Pandemic as a Traumatic Stressor: Mental Health Responses of Older Adults with Chronic PTSD



After an index trauma, individuals with Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) are thought to be vulnerable to increased symptomatology following additional traumatic and stressful events. Compared to controls, older adult Holocaust survivors subjected to additional trauma experienced increased intrusive thoughts and hyperarousal symptoms related to the reactivation of traumatic memories


  • Fossion P
  • Leys C
  • Kempenaers C
  • Braun S
  • Verbanck P
  • Linkowski P
Beware of multiple traumas in PTSD assessment: The role of reactivation mechanism in intrusive and hyper-arousal symptoms.